Lithium Anode Made Possible By Stanford
A lithium anode has been made possible by inventing a film made from carbon nanospheres to protect the unstable lithium as it expands during charging and contracts while discharging.
In lithium ion batteries the lithium is in the electrolyte not the anode. The anode is made out of graphite or silicon.
An unprotected lithium anode cracks during the charge/discharge cycle.
The carbon nanosphere layer also protects the lithium anode from chemically reacting with the lithium electrolyte.
Researchers at Stanford University suggest that a lithium anode could make batteries 4x more efficient.